24 Ekim 2010 Pazar

France and Turkey "Laicité - Laiklik"

Laïcité is called as secularism in English, but this word find its mean of course in French, since laïcité was born in France in spite of the fact that there was secularism in Germany, laïcité is different than secularism, forwhy laïcité is more institutive. In the first provision of 1905 French Constitution says, "Republic secures the freedom of religion and conscience." and the second provision says, "Republic does not approve any religion." These provisions of the 1905 French Constitution shows us that the State does not have any religion, so anyone can believe what they want. In brief this provisions are permissions, the state and the religion are separate, hence anyone is free as religional. However 1905 constitution, France had many argument about laicité, because France was "the Eldest Daughter of the Church" untill it would be "the Daughter of the Revolution." For many catholic, it was a difficult period to adapt, for many centuries, while they were saying "Father-Son-Holy Ghost", they started to say "Wisdom-Science-Advencement", but christian traditions always live in France and probably will continue live like Sarkozy's say.

There is many Jewish and Muslim in France, so this situation created some important argument, especially about head scarf. In 1989 fall, a head scarf problem appeared in a college in Creil; then 45 different school reported the young muslim girls in head scarfs. This case seemed like would cause a deep and a consistent separation among laic people.(J. Baubérot, Laiklik, 33, 2009) After that media's all interest turned head scarf and laicité and discussions and arguments about headscarf and laicité still continue.

Laicité in Turkey is a very different and similar process. As similar, Ottomans were like French people, they were very important for their religional mass. France was the Eldest Daughter of the Church, and Ottoman was the successor of the prophet for all muslims.

For people who finished the wars, adaptation was not easy to a new republic, new clothes and a life without a muslim caliph. Republic and laicité caused many concern, even riots, but people needed a hope and a new liveable life without war, a modern life could provide these, especially women were much more happy than men, since new rules and constution gave many rights, laicité sepatated the State and the religion, but clothes rules as called Hat Law, against to muslim's clothing rules for women. Of course head scarf is not equal and impellent, if like in Iran's, but people want to cover themselves their own desire, not covering with force and laws is not equal and impellent, too. As like as today in universities in Turkey. This situation can call as "Laikçilik" easily. In Turkey, laicité was used for removing from religion and to close the scince in fact, but today we can see when we look at past, people did not await for this speed pass, if they were await the first opposition parties could not gain a big support from the folk.

According to Jean Baubérot, laicité appeared in schools, state got a new laic morality lessons in 1882 and then in 1905 in the constitution the state and religions separated. In Turkey, laicité approved in 1937, but laicité never assimilate among people because they did not come accross a persecution about religions like in dark ages in France. There was noone against science, modernism, also minorities were living in peace untill 1955. If there were not this forbiddens, may be some evil events would not live.

France and Turkey close each other lately, such as Sarkozy's supports to minaret forbidden of Switzerland. Each France and Turkey are separated about laicité, but of course laicité was born in France and they can solve the problems more easy than Turkey. Laicité can be a powerful solve, if states and spme people did not change the word's mean. They change and give a new meaning this word, and laicité turned to a new religion. For some people Laicité is atheism, for some people like scientology, but laicité is not a religion, it is just respect to anyone who believe what they want, what they do which rules from their religion or not doing, can stay agnostic or atheist, yet knowing the state has never a religion.

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