31 Ekim 2010 Pazar
29 Ekim 2010 Cuma
|yaşlı keman virtiözü|
The stale cold smell of morning
The streetlamp dies, another night is over
Another day is dawning
It's so easy to leave me
All alone with the memory
Of my days in the sun
If you touch me
You'll understand what happiness is
A new day has begun
24 Ekim 2010 Pazar
Laïcité is called as secularism in English, but this word find its mean of course in French, since laïcité was born in France in spite of the fact that there was secularism in Germany, laïcité is different than secularism, forwhy laïcité is more institutive. In the first provision of 1905 French Constitution says, "Republic secures the freedom of religion and conscience." and the second provision says, "Republic does not approve any religion." These provisions of the 1905 French Constitution shows us that the State does not have any religion, so anyone can believe what they want. In brief this provisions are permissions, the state and the religion are separate, hence anyone is free as religional. However 1905 constitution, France had many argument about laicité, because France was "the Eldest Daughter of the Church" untill it would be "the Daughter of the Revolution." For many catholic, it was a difficult period to adapt, for many centuries, while they were saying "Father-Son-Holy Ghost", they started to say "Wisdom-Science-Advencement", but christian traditions always live in France and probably will continue live like Sarkozy's say.
There is many Jewish and Muslim in France, so this situation created some important argument, especially about head scarf. In 1989 fall, a head scarf problem appeared in a college in Creil; then 45 different school reported the young muslim girls in head scarfs. This case seemed like would cause a deep and a consistent separation among laic people.(J. Baubérot, Laiklik, 33, 2009) After that media's all interest turned head scarf and laicité and discussions and arguments about headscarf and laicité still continue.
Laicité in Turkey is a very different and similar process. As similar, Ottomans were like French people, they were very important for their religional mass. France was the Eldest Daughter of the Church, and Ottoman was the successor of the prophet for all muslims.
For people who finished the wars, adaptation was not easy to a new republic, new clothes and a life without a muslim caliph. Republic and laicité caused many concern, even riots, but people needed a hope and a new liveable life without war, a modern life could provide these, especially women were much more happy than men, since new rules and constution gave many rights, laicité sepatated the State and the religion, but clothes rules as called Hat Law, against to muslim's clothing rules for women. Of course head scarf is not equal and impellent, if like in Iran's, but people want to cover themselves their own desire, not covering with force and laws is not equal and impellent, too. As like as today in universities in Turkey. This situation can call as "Laikçilik" easily. In Turkey, laicité was used for removing from religion and to close the scince in fact, but today we can see when we look at past, people did not await for this speed pass, if they were await the first opposition parties could not gain a big support from the folk.
According to Jean Baubérot, laicité appeared in schools, state got a new laic morality lessons in 1882 and then in 1905 in the constitution the state and religions separated. In Turkey, laicité approved in 1937, but laicité never assimilate among people because they did not come accross a persecution about religions like in dark ages in France. There was noone against science, modernism, also minorities were living in peace untill 1955. If there were not this forbiddens, may be some evil events would not live.
France and Turkey close each other lately, such as Sarkozy's supports to minaret forbidden of Switzerland. Each France and Turkey are separated about laicité, but of course laicité was born in France and they can solve the problems more easy than Turkey. Laicité can be a powerful solve, if states and spme people did not change the word's mean. They change and give a new meaning this word, and laicité turned to a new religion. For some people Laicité is atheism, for some people like scientology, but laicité is not a religion, it is just respect to anyone who believe what they want, what they do which rules from their religion or not doing, can stay agnostic or atheist, yet knowing the state has never a religion.
The framework of the French political system was changed by the 1958 constitution that created the Fifth Republic. Many observers at the time did not hold out much hope for the success of the new regime. However, over time the country has stabilized, and it appears as if the current framework has cured at least some of the political problems that plagued France during all of the previous republics. The system is a hybrid presidential-parliamentary one that has both a president and a prime minister. The combination of characteristics has created a complicated government structure that strikes many as unwieldy, but the Fifth Republic has survived multiple challenges, and has at least tempered the unpredictability and instability of the historical "swing effect."
Political parties have the status of an association under the Act of 1 July 1901 on association contracts. They are organised on a long-term basis and established throughout France. They aim to exercise power or at least take part in it. Pluralism and competition of various political groups are among the foundations of democracy and freedom of opinion. This is embodied in Article 4 of the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, as is the freedom to join a party or not.
The internal organisation of a party is set out in an enactment. Parties need structures so that they can be introduced into the electorate and endure:
· At national level, a national office or council, led by a chairman or national secretary, most often elected by all its members;
· At local level, branches or cells organised into Departmental federations. Their bodies are elected by the members.
Political parties that have elected representatives in the National Assembly, Senate or European Parliament are as follows:
· The Union for a Popular Movement (UMP)
· The Union for French Democracy (UDF)
· The Socialist Party (PS)
· The French Communist Party (PCF)
· The Greens
· The National Front (FN)
· The Movement for France (MPF)
· The Left Radical Party (PRG)
While the political parties in France can be divided into right and left leaning parties, the political party spectrum is much more broadly represented than in the United States. The French government, conceivably, can take the views and desires of a wide range of citizens into account. France also has a number of political parties with views that support communism and worker's rights. The goals of these parties are represented in Parliament, ensuring more protection for the working class.
Today, owner of the government is Union For a Popular Movement (UMP) of Nicolas Sarkozy. In fact The Union for a Popular Movement created a political party which would ensure victory for Chirac and dominate Parliament. UMP is a moderate political party with many progressive policy reforms to its credit. When we look past, there is Rally for the Republic before Union For a Popular Movement. Historically, Rally for the Republic was probably the most powerful political party in France. It generally took approximately one-fifth of each election, and over time, several smaller parties aligned with Rally for the Republic for more political clout. Rally for the Republic was founded in 1976 by Jacques Chirac. In 2002, the political party merged with several other major political parties to form Union for a Popular Movement. Another powerful political party in France is the Socialist Party. In Europe, Socialists are differentiated from Communists, with many nations having a substantial Socialist majority. The Socialist party is committed to worker's rights, access to health care and education for all citizens, as well as state support for citizens in need. The Socialist Party cooperates with other left of center political parties including the Greens and the Left Radical to advance their aims.
The National Front is a political party which is also active in France, mostly regionally. The National Front is a right of center, nationalist political party which has been accused by detractors of being racist, anti-Semitic, and far-right. The party promotes traditional French values, higher tariffs on imports, more separation from Europe andreinstatement of the death penalty. The National Front is opposed to immigration and liberal movements. While the National Party rarely gains seats on the national level, it does exert power in some regions of France, especially those struggling with immigration issues.
In 2005 Le Figaro wrote, "French political parties separated about Membership of Turkey's to EU and EU constitution"
Then Le Monde wrote, President Jacques Chirac and government warned not to implicate these two issue each other, but the warning did not work. Then the newspaper had summarized in 2005 attitude of the parties about membership of Turkey;
YES FOR CONSTITUTION AND TURKEY: President Jacques Chirac, Socialist Party General secretary François Hollande and from Green party Dominique Voynet.
YES FOR CONSTITUTION, NOR FOR TURKEY: UMP Nicolas Sarkozy, UDF leader is François Bayrou and Socialist Party Senator is Robert Badinter.
NO FOR CONSTITUTION AND TURKEY: From Socialist Party Laurent Fabius (Old
Prime Minister), from radical right wing Jean Maire Le Pen, MPF (against Turkey) leader Philippe De Villers.
NO FOR CONSTITUTION, YES FOR TURKEY: From Communist Party Marie George Buffet, LCR Leader Alain Krivine and from LO Arlette Laguiller.